The communication technologies pushed autonomous vehicles closer to reality

The communication technologies would push autonomous vehicles closer to reality. Today's vehicles include AM, FM, and satellite radio, GPS navigation, and Bluetooth connectivity, offer a Wi-Fi hotspot, remote door unlocking, emergency service and reports an accident.

Technology – Automotive Industry Future

The three categories of sensor technologies which measure many different aspects of driving include: Cameras and Radio Detection And Ranging (RADAR) and Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) sensors.

The latest advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) benefit from the automatic controls and alerts. It consists of a backup camera, radar for adaptive cruise control and automatic braking, lots of video cameras, and ultrasonic sensors that implement lane keeping and other collision avoidance systems.

The incorporation of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) radios enables vehicles to communicate with each other to prevent the collision. Furthermore, allows ot communicate with the city, county, or federal services that can provide useful data to the driver like road conditions, construction, weather, and traffic that will help them avoid delays and accidents.

LiDAR sensors within autonomous vehicles measure the distance between stationary and moving objects and to create a 3D image of the detected objects. They can measure said objects from up to 100 meters away using infrared (IR) laser signals. LiDAR IR systems can either use a rotating laser or a solid-state laser, both aided by the use of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) components.

An array of Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPAD) used to detect the reflected inbound photons. Once photon reaches, the semiconducting p-n junction within the MEMS components causes the current in the diode to break down, which is then detected and outputted.

The short range (24-GHz) and long range (77 GHz) RADAR employed at the front and the rear of autonomous vehicles to monitor the surrounding traffic. They detect objects in the surrounding environment by emitting electromagnetic radio waves and detect returning waves by a receiver. They provide more accurate and precise measurements for speed, distance, and angular resolution.

The rear and 360° cameras provide a comprehensive understanding of the nearby environment. They contain a series of CMOS compatible imaging sensors that produce images between 1 and 2 megapixels. They give a precise evaluation of the speed and distance and determine the presence of objects via their outlines.

Sensors serving many different purposes are a vital part of any modern automobile design. They provide safer, comfortable and fuel-efficient drive. The new upcoming vehicles can take action of its own using intelligent observability, controllability, and data processing. The sensors would constantly provide a clear picture of happenings in relation to the external environment. They would process a wide variety of parametric data like speed, pressure, position, proximity detection, gesture recognition, environmental conditions, driver monitoring, people/object detection and many more.

Self-driving vehicles with advanced in-cabin sensing solutions

The next-generation QVGA ToF (Time-of-Flight) sensor & VGA ToF sensors chipsets technology look to enable autonomous self-driving vehicles. The TOF uses an optical emitter and receiver to determine the distance of an object from the sensor. Modulated light flashes the scene and the pixels in the receiver measure the amplitude and phase delay of the returned light. The distance between the sensor and the object is accurately calculated by taking the differences between the signal leaving the emitter and the signal that is reflected back to the receiver.

Ministry of road transport and highways must make it mandatory to use GPS sensors issued by their office. The GPS cellular system would enable to track vehicles locations and condition. It includes telematics control unit (TCU) with a GPS receiver, cell phone, and MCU with various sensors and controls.

The insurance companies can use that data to calculate the risk of accidents based on travel patterns. Furthermore, safer drivers can be rewarded and errant drivers are penalized.