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Biometrics Access Control
No two fingerprints are alike, even in identical twins – Sir Francis Galton (1893).
Henry system classified fingerprint ridges into eight categories: the central pocket loop, the double loop, the accidental, the plain arch, the plain whorl, the radial loop, the tented arch, and the ulnar loop.
Using Fingerprint Image Compression Standard, the FBI stores over 200 million fingerprints, out of which 29 million are unique and rest are from repeat offenders. The standard provides space-effective digital storage.
With time the technology becomes inexpensive and hence most businesses incorporate it for authentication purpose.
Several rare diseases like Epidermolysis Bullosa distort fingerprints or destroy them altogether, the victims have partial fingerprints or none at all.
FingerPrint Authentication Systems
- SecureStart ISA from I/O Software: It authenticates users prior to boot, with a compact fingerprint scanner connected to the ISA card.
- Biomouse from American Biometric reads fingerprints
Reliable, and Accurate Retina Scanning
The retina, an infinitesimally thin tissue which handles peripheral vision. It contains several layers – the outer layer contains reflective, photoreceptive structures called rods and cones that process light into electrical signals which get transmitted to the brain. Beneath this is the choroid layer having a complex blood vessel system.
The retinal patterns offer between 700 to 4200 points, much higher than a fingerprint, hence classed as high-biometrics. But the major issue is that it cannot be done on blind, partially blind or persons having cataracts. The retinal scans have inappropriately high false negative or rejection rate. Furthermore, the scan discloses personal information like signs of drug abuse, hereditary diseases, even AIDS. Hence maintaining the retinal pattern database could conceivably leave open to litigation. An employee may perceive them as a privacy violation.
Retina Scanning Authentication Systems
- IrisScan: A networked biometric authentication system, in which users get authenticated by random iris patterns. It supports 256 workstations per LAN segment with NT server in heterogeneous environments.
- VeriVoice: identifies and recognizes a voice
The system fails to authenticate if the person had bronchitis, cold or laryngitis
Biometrics Access Control Standards
- The BioAPI Consortium: The group established to help developers to integrate biometric identification into existing standards and APIs.
- The Biometric Consortium: The U.S government focal point for research, development, test, evaluation, and application of biometric-based personal identification verification technology.
Benefits – Biometrics Access Control
- To expedite airport screening.
- biometric-enabled doorway entry in banks
- IDEMIA uses facial recognition for user identification in the development of mobile driver’s license technology.
- Various forms of biometrics incorporated at all Department of Defense (DOD) laboratories
Latest News – Biometrics Access Control
- (October 18, 2018) SmartMetric, Inc. created the multi-functional biometric security card, used to open doorways with a wireless RFID reader and to log into company computer networks. The built-inside-the-card fingerprint scanner used to identify the card-user. No external “biometric” readers needed as the card itself is the biometric fingerprint reader. The enterprise software system installs on the company server, which allows access to each card with selected authority and rights.
- (October 17, 2018) Apple patented voice biometrics-based device access system with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. It allows users to unlock a device or use a feature such as Siri with voice biometrics. No separate authentication step required, a user’s voice authenticated at the same time a voice command get processed. The company describes the use of a text-independent voiceprint to authenticate the proper user and grant access to a restricted function in a single step. Locally or on the Network server, voice data collected to train the system during normal voice interactions, to generate a voiceprint. No separate speaker recognition training step is required.
- (October 16, 2018) Lufkin High School in Lufkin, Texas installs keyless entry fingerprint scanners at campus entry points. Now, students and faculty have to use a fingerprint scanner to enter the campus at certain hours of the school day.