TCP/IP is a robust set of protocols designed to provide communications in both local area networks and on the Internet with different operating systems and hardware. The protocol is developed and managed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), supervised by the Internet Society (ISOC). The standards and documentation issued in the form of Request for Comments (RFC) documents.

It 1970, it developed on UNIX systems as a DARPA project to enhance communications between universities and research centers. Most of its research carried at the University of California, Berkeley.

TCP/IP Protocol Suite


  • TCP Transmission Control Protocol: handles receiving and sending out communications, designed to work with cohesive messages or data. At the sender's end, it breaks the data into separate components called datagrams, which are further break into packets and designates their order. The packets is the physical message unit transmitted through various interlocking routes and delivered to their destination computers. And at the receiver's end, it checks received datagrams and sorts them into designated order, reassembling into the original message.The protocol provides stable and reliable connections. Sending small components proved to be safe and faster than sending one large bulky transmission. It any datagram lost or damaged, only that component is re-sent.
  • IP Internet Protocol: It is a base protocol and handles actual transmission
  • UDP User Datagram Protocol: Works at raw level, breaks the data into packets, without designating or checking the order. It handles receiving and sending packets with no guarantee. Used for transmitting large amounts of data that can even survive with the loss of a few packets like videos, temporary images, and banners displayed on the Internet.
  • ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol: status messages for IP

To determine Routing

  • RIP Routing Information Protocol
  • OSPF Open Shortest Path First

Network Address

  • DNS Domain Name System: provides address resolution
  • ARP Address Resolution Protocol: determines the unique IP address of systems
  • RARP Reverse Address Resolution Protocol: determine addresses of systems

User Service

  • FTP File Transmission Protocol: provides file transmission
  • TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol: transfers files using UDP
  • SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol: transfers email between systems
  • Telnet: Remote login to another system on the network
  • RPC Remote Procedure Call: allows programs on remote systems to communicate

Network Services

  • NFS Network File System: provides access to remote file systems; allows mounting of file systems on remote machines
  • NIS Network Information Service: maintains user accounts across a network
  • BOOTP Boot Protocol: start system using boot information on the server for network
  • SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol: provides status messages on TCP/IP configuration
  • DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol: automatically provides network configuration information to host systems


  • EGP Exterior Gateway Protocol: provides Routingfor external networks
  • GGP Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol: provides Routing between internet gateways
  • IGP Interior Gateway Protocol: provides Routing for internal networks

>> Next Page: TCP/IP Protocol Development Groups