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  • ISOC Internet Society: Professional membership organization of Internet experts that oversees boards and task forces dealing with network policy issues
  • IESG The Internet Engineering Steering Group: Responsible for technical management of IETF activities and the Internet standards process
  • IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority: Responsible for Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, officially allocates Internet addresses. It oversees Internet Registries (IRs)
  • Internet Registries (IRs): maintains Internet addresses on regional and local levels to users by Internet Service Providers (ISPs). The Internet Registry for the Americas is the American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN).
  • IAB Internet Architecture Board: Defines the overall architecture of the Internet, providing guidance and broad direction to the IETF
  • IETF Internet Engineering Task Force: Protocol engineering and development arm of the Internet

TCP/IP Configuration Files

A set of configuration files in the /etc directory used to manage TCP/IP network, specify network information as host & domain names, IP addresses, and interface options.

  • hostnames /etc/hosts: It holds domain names and IP addresses of frequently accessed hosts. It associates hostnames with IP address list domain names for remote hosts with their IP addresses. For each IP address, a domain name exists, which references a computer on the network. Before accessing nameserver, the system translates domain names to their associate IP address using /etc/hosts file.
    127.0.01 localhost.localdomain localhost wap.ananova.com ananova.com
    localhost.localdomain and localhost are associated with (reserved address – loopback device) enables the system to communicate locally with each other.
  • /etc/resolv.conf: It holds Ip addresses for DNS servers along with domain to search. A DNS entry starts with nameservers, followed by the nameserver IP address. A search entry lists network domain addresses. On a local network, DHCP automatically places an entry in this file and then router reference ISP's nameserver.
    search ananova.com bhj.org
    nameserver ns1.ananova.com
    nameserver ns2.ananova.com
  • /etc/services: It lists network services available on a system like FTP, Web server, Telnet, and associated ports.
  • /etc/protocols: It lists TCP/IP protocols supported by a system. Its entry shows protocol number, keyword identifier, and a brief description.

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