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Nowadays wireless network is used by billions of people every day. The Internet-enabled mobiles have increased the ‘Net‘ usage, and people are using them everywhere indoors, public places, outstations in roaming mode, and traveling. With 4G the network performance has also increased and has reached to the most distant rural area. It has provided freedom for people to use applications without using a wired connection from any corner of the world.
Most of us have 4G enabled mobile systems. It supports multimedia, video, voice, wireless internet and broadband services. In comparison to its earlier generations, it provides high speed, high capacity, low cost per bit, global mobility, service portability and scalable mobile network.
The people are using it for sending email messages, videos, photographs they click and to talk to other people. The transmission is done using radio waves, which are invisible to humans.
Based on wireless network coverage area the following wireless categories are available:
- Personal Area Network (PAN)
- Local Area Network (LAN)
- Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
- Wide Area Network (WAN)
Personal Area Network (PAN)
PAN range goes up to 20m and is ideal for offices on the same floor or in a small building. Several devices can simultaneously attach like PDA, Printer, Laptops. The devices connected with radio transmitters and receivers, thus avoiding the cost of cables. The communication takes place at a physical layer of the OSI network model. Most devices available nowadays have WiFi integrated with easier setup and configuration.
The Zigbee used in industrial, scientific and medical industry is a proximity wireless ad-hoc network. The Bluetooth 5.0 used in Personal Computers, Smartphones and Gaming consoles works in the range up to 400m.
Local Area Network (LAN)
It connects local PCs, laptops at a short distance through an Access Point (AP) using OFDM technology or spread-spectrum. The devices IEEE 802.11 WLAN standards are often used to connect networks of two or more buildings.
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
Connects several wireless LANs
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Covers a vast area between neighboring cities, often head office connect to its branch offices. A WAN system includes a base station, Gateway, Acess Points, and wireless bridging relays.